In our previous passages the main abjective has been to demonstrate dufferent theories of reality as conceived and expounded by eminent philosophers, who are simultaneously representatives of different schools of philosophy. On the contrary, the reader should not assume that previous passages are aimed at outlining the history of philosophy or philosophers, for our ultimate aim is to arrive at a consistent, comprehensive and an ever encompassing picture of man. This task will be futile lest we trace the evolution of human thought and elucidate the picture of man as portrayed during different phases of history. But again, such a view will be incomplete lest we also incorporate the different “world views”, as existed during different epochs of our intellectual evolution. Our task now is to summon major world views or “theories of reality before we proceed to Kant and his philosophical criticism. However we content ourselves only with precise description of each theory, without going into its critical and historical analysis.
Besides investigating the origin and purpose of creation, the ontological and teleological aspects of universe, philosophers from antiquity have also pondered on the “stuff or constitution” of the universe. As Allama opens his book, “The reconstruction of religious thought in Islam”, with an interrogative phrase that “What is the character and general structure of the universe in which we live? Is there a permanent element in the constitution of the universe? How are we related to it? What place do we occupy in it and what is the kind of conduct that befits the place we occupy.”
Broadly speaking, this question has been answered by philosophers from three different perspectives and consequently we have three broad theories of reality, these are monism, dualism and pluralism.
Monism:- Monism is a theory of reality which insists that the ultimate stuff of the world is one. Then this “one” is interpreted in multiple forms. If it is assumed that this ultimate stuff or “one” is matter, then this view is called materialism. Materialism asserts that there is finally one reality, matter. To materialists, even mind is a (evolved) form of matter and there is nothing like idea, spirit or unseen in materialist ambit. This theory emerged as an exaggerated exegesis of Newtonian mechanics. Some of Newton’s predecessors unlawfully applied the laws of matter to the realm of spirit and consequently there ensued a whole new doctrine of inconsistencies and fallacies. The reality is essence cannot be matter, for there are innumerable phenomenons within the fabric of physics itself that cannot be properly understood or interpreted in terms of pure materialism. For the comprehensive interpretation of universe we need to invoke immaterial entity called energy, philosophically known as divine will (Amr)
Dualism.-Another version of monism is idealism, which also asserts that the reality is one that one being mind or spirit. Averse to materialism, idealists hold that matter is at its best a construction or representation of mind. Patrick beautifully writes “Thus the idealists would deny that the mechanical interpretation of the world is in any way final. The universe is not a dead mechanical ruthless grinding of wheels, wherein values, religion and moral aspirations are but stupid delusions; it is rather, a living dynamic reality which guarantees a cosmic worth to human striving and interprets the world in the light of spiritual values”. Einstein’s all time famous equation
Does not merely point to the “matter-energy interconversion” but it has also abolished the age old dogma of dualistic view of reality. This critical analysis has to a large extent encompassed the maxims of dualism, however it may be further mentioned that dualism is a theory which asserts that matter and body are two different realities in the world and that they cannot be reduced to one or to the other. The third form of monism is called neutralism which holds that the reality is neither mind or matter but a single kind of stuff of which both mind and matter are, but manifestations. In modern parlance, the reality of universe is neither in matter nor in energy because the reciprocal inter-conversion of matter energy has uprooted the dichotomy of physical (matter) and spiritual (energy) dualism and has established matter as well as energy both the manifestations of divine will that can be freely interchanged and transformed into one another This belief of unity is further reinforced by the theory of Quantum Electrodynamics that does not see universe as static but a dynamic arena where matter and energy are spontaneously created and destroyed.
Pluralism : Ghalib, who was not a philosopher in strict sense, made some allusions to some of the most perplexing philosophical themes. On world, he said:-
KEH SAKE KAUN KI YEH JALWAGARI KIS KI HAI
PARDA CHODA HAI WHO US NE KO UTHAYE NA BANE
Ghalib hereby tries to uphold the multitude of universe and the multiformity of cosmic phenomenon. Same is the belief of pluralists, who hold that world is not so simple to be reduced to matter or spirit. The reality of world is a manifold which cannot be decomposed to further simple constituents. Thus whereas monism holds unity in diversity, pluralism holds diversity in unity. This discussion shall be borne in mind, before we proceed and venture into the continental philosophy. For time being we turn to the philosophy of Immanuel Kant.
Immanuel Kant was simultaneously a logician, mathematician, philosopher and metaphysician. Among his masterworks “critique of pure reason”, “Prolegomena to any future metaphysics” and “critique of practical reason” deserve special mention. In critique, he investigates the reality of “Knowledge”.Kant maintained that there are certain forms of sense and categories of understanding which precondition what we actually call knowledge. Further “these forms and categories apply only things of sense, so that only knowledge man is capable of is confined to the region of actual or possible experience”’ . But on a genuine analysis, one cannot wholeheartedly accept Kantian view, for there are two more sources of knowledge. One of them being intuition, in the form of special psychological experience, which, as Bergson holds is an advanced form of intellect or else in the form of dreams, which later turn to be realities, the best example being the dream of Freidrich August Kekule, to whom the structure of benzene was disclose in dream. The second important source of knowledge is that of divine revelation which cannot be ignored in any comprehensive concept of knowledge, Iqbal rightly said that “ Revelation is more fundamental as the source of ultimate truth and reality, reason should merely confirm what is given by revelation.
to be continued
Amir Suhail Wani is a freelance columnist with bachelors in Electrical Engineering and a student of comparative studies with special interests in Iqbaliyat & mystic thought.